AIDING AND ABETTING - INTRODUCTION
All persons concerned in the commission of a crime are regarded by the law as principals and are equally guilty thereof. A person concerned in the commission of a crime as a principal is one who (directly and actively commits the act(s) constituting the offense)/(knowingly and with criminal intent aids and abets in the commission of the offense)/(whether present or not, advises and encourages the commission of the offense).
Notes on Use
If the court uses the second alternative in the second sentence, it should also inform the jury of the definition of "criminal intent" in OUJI-CR 2-9, infra. If this Instruction is given, the court must also give OUJI-CR 2-6, infra.