NEGLECT OF CHILD - ELEMENTS
No person may be convicted of neglect of a child unless the State has proved beyond a reasonable doubt each element of the crime. These elements are:
First, a person responsible for the child's health, safety, or welfare;
[Third, failed/omitted to provide;
Fourth, adequate (nurturance and affection)/food/clothing/shelter/sanitation/hygiene)/(appropriate education)/(medical/dental/(behavioral health) care/supervision/(appropriate caretakers)/(special care made necessary by the physical/mental condition of the child);
Fifth, for a child under the age of eighteen.]
[Third, failed/omitted to protect;
Fourth, a child under the age of eighteen from exposure to;
Fifth, (the use/possession/sale/manufacture of illegal drugs)/(illegal activities)/(sexual acts or materials that are not age-appropriate).]
Fourth, a child under the age of eighteen.]
Statutory Authority: 21 O.S. Supp. 2019, § 843.5(C), 10A O.S. Supp. 2019, § 1-1-105(48).
The Committee believes some restriction on the scope of child neglect under 21 O.S. Supp. 2019, § 843.5(C) and 10A O.S. Supp. 2019, § 1-1-105(48) is necessary because otherwise a person would be in violation of the statute for failing to provide food or shelter to a child that the person had never met. The Legislature has declared that "it is the policy of this state to provide for the protection of children who have been abused or neglected ... by the conduct of persons responsible for the health, safety, and welfare of such children." 10A O.S. Supp. 2019, § 1-1-102(A)(3). Accordingly, the Committee has decided that the scope of child neglect should be restricted to persons responsible for the child's health or safety, as defined in 10A O.S. Supp. 2019, § 1-1-105(52). These persons include the child's parent or guardian, as well as other persons who are responsible for the child's safety, either in the child's home, a relative's home, a foster care home, child care facility, or a residential institution.
The crime of omission to provide for a child is governed by 21 O.S. 2011, § 852(A). See OUJI-CR 4-40A, infra. Its elements are similar to the elements for child neglect, but in contrast to child neglect, omission to provide for a child is a misdemeanor. Unlike child neglect, omission to provide for a child includes willful omission to furnish monetary child support or the payment of court-ordered day care or medical insurance costs.
In Fairchild v. State, 1999 OK CR 49, ¶ 51, 998 P.2d 611, 622-23, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals decided that the mens rea for felony murder of a child under 21 O.S. Supp. 1999, § 701.7(C) was a general intent to commit the act which causes the injury, rather than a specific intent, and that the general intent was included within the terms "willfully" or "maliciously."